Wie is wie

ALBRECHTSBERGER, Johann Georg (1736–1809) Musical theorist, teacher (1794/1795)
AMENDA, Karl (1771-1836) Violinist, close friend.(1798–1804)
ARTARIA, Carlo Music publishers founded by C.F.Artaria (c.1770,Vienna). Published majority of Beethoven’s works pre1800 & a few later works..

BEETHOVEN, Johann van (1740–1792) Father
BEETHOVEN, Kaspar Anton Karl van (1774–1815) Brother
BEETHOVEN, Karl Van (1806–1856) Nephew
BEETHOVEN, Ludewjik Van (1712–1773) Grandfather
BEETHOVEN, Nikolaus Johann van (1776–1848) Brother
BIGOT, Marie (nee.Kleine) (1786-1820): Friend. Pianist & teacher. Married in 1804 Bigot de Monogues (librarian to Count Razumovsky). Left Vienna in 1809 & settled in Paris. In 1816 Mendelsohnn was one of her pupils. (1804-1809)
BREITKOPF & HÄRTEL Music publishers (founded in 1719 by B.C.Breitkopf). Published Major Beethoven works Op.67-86.
BRENTANO, Antonia (nee.Von Birkenstock) (1780-1869): Close Friend. Married to Franz Brentano. Possible recipient of the ‘Immortal beloved letters’ (1810/1814)
BRENTANO, Bettina (later, Von Arnim) (1785-1859): (Picture: Osterreichische Nationalbibliothek, Vienna) Friend. Friend of Goethe. Half sister of Franz Brentano. After marriage moved to Berlin. (1810–1812)
BREUNING, Eleonore von (‘Lorchen’) (Later, Wegeler) (1771-1841): Early friend. Lived in Coblenz..
BREUNING, Stephan von (1774–1827) Stephan Von (1774-1827): (Picture: Osterreichische Nationalbibliothek, Vienna) Close life long friend. Brother of Eleonore.
BRUNSWICK, Josephine von (1779–1821) Intimate friend. Married Count Joseph Deym in June 1799; he died in 1804. She left Vienna in 1808 & married Baron C.Von Stackelberg (1777-1841) in Feb 1810. Sister of Therese. (1799/1804–1808)
BRUNSWICK, Therese von (1775–1861) (1799–1808)
BROWNE–CAMUS, G. G. von friend


CHERUBINI, Luigi (1760–1842) Composer. Born in Florence. Settled in Paris in 1788. Met Beethoven in Vienna (1805)

CLEMENT, Franz: Violinist. Beethoven wrote the Violin concerto for him.  

CLEMENTI, Muzio (1752–1832) Music publisher, pianist, composer. Born in Rome. Settled in England in 1810.  

CZERNY, Carl (1791–1857) Pupil of Beethoven (1800-3). Became fine pianist & teacher. (Liszt amongst his pupils). 


ERDÖDY, Gräfin Anna Marie von (Niczky) (1779–1837) Friend. Pianist. Gave private concerts in her apartment in the Krugerstrasse. Beethoven had rooms there (1808/9). After 1820, the Erdody family left Austria for good.  (1808/1809)

ERTMAN, Baronin Dorothea von (Graumann) (1781–1849) Friend. Fine pianist who had lessons from Beethoven in 1803. Left Vienna in 1824 with husband & settled in Milan. 


FRIES, Count Moritz Von (1777-1826): Patron of artists. Director of Austrian bank


GALITZIN, Prinz Nikolai (1794–1860) Amateur cellist.Promoter of music in St.Petersburg. Commisioned last quartets.    

GOETHE, Johann Wolfgang von (1749–1832) German writer. Beethoven idolised Goethe a lot.

GRILLPARZER, Franz (1791–1872) Friend. Poet.Nephew of Joseph Sonnleithner. Attempted to collaborate with Beethoven on libretto for an opera. Wrote Beethoven’s funeral oration . (1804/1805–1827)

GLEICHENSTEIN, Baron Ignaz von (1778–1828) Friend. Gifted cellist. Married Anna Malfatti in May 1811. Left Vienna in 1813, returned briefly in 1824 (1800–1813/1824)

GUICCIARDI, Gräfin Giulietta (1784–1856) Intimate friend, pupil. Married Count Gallenberg in 1803. Moved to Italy. Cousin of the Brunsviks & dedicatee of the “Moonlight” sonata. (1801–1803)


HASLINGER, Tobias (1787–1842) ): Publisher. Born Zell am Zee. Came to Vienna in 1810. Partnership with S.Steiner in 1816.(1816–1827)  

HAYDN Joseph (1732–1809) Composer / teacher (1792-1794)

HOFFMEISTER, Franz Anton (1754–1812) Publisher. Founded publishing firm with Ambross Kuhnel at Leipzig. This firm became C.F.Peters in 1813  

HOLZ, Karl (1798–1858) Friend. Amateur violist (1824–1826)

HOLTZMANN, Barbara (1755–?)  (1806–1827)

HÜTTENBRENNER, Anselm (1794–1868)  (1816–†)


KEVERICH Maria (verw. Leym) (1746–1787) Mother.  

KINSKY, Prince Ferdinand (1781–1812) Patron. One of the 3 guarantors of Beethoven’s income after 1809. Died 0n Nov3 after fall from horse. 

Kreutzer Rudolpho French violin virtuoso


LICHNOWSKY, Prince Karl (1756–1814) One of Beethoven’s earliest patrons in Vienna & friend. Pupil of Mozart. Brother of Count Moritz Lichnowsky. They had a major quarrel in 1806 and their friendship was never quite the same again. (1793–1814)

LICHNOWSKY, Princess Maria Christiane (Thun-Hohenstein) (1765–1841) Fine pianist and friend, married to Prince Karl Lichnowsky. (1793–1814)

LICHNOWSKY, Graf Moritz (1771–1837) Younger brother of Karl and friend of Beethoven. He was an accomplished pianist (supposedly taught by Mozart) and his relationship with Beethoven stood the test of time as they were friends for many years. 

LIECHTENSTEIN, Princess Josephine Sophie (1776–1848) Wealthy old aristocratic family. 

LISZT, Franz L. (1811–1886) Composer.

LINKE, Joseph (1783–1837) Cellist in Razumovsky quartet. Closely associated with performances at Countess Erdody’s.  

LOBKOWITZ, Prince Franz Joseph von (1772–1816) Patron. Had private orchestra which gave performances of Beethoven’s works (including 1st performance of “Eroica” symphony) One of the guarantors of Beethoven’s income after 1809. (1800–1816)


MÄLZEL, Johann Nepomuk (1772–1838) Inventor; “Automatic Panharmonicon”, Metronome. Colaborated with Beethoven with “Battle” symphony – resulted in legal dispute between them. (1812/1813, 1817)

MALFATTI, Therese (1792–1851) Beethoven proposed to her, but she later married Baron Von Drosdick in June 1816. Her father owned estate at Modling. She was the niece of the physician Dr.Giovanni Malfatti (1775-1859) who treated Beethoven during his final illness. She was the probable recipient of “Fur elise” (1810)

MAXIMILLIAN, Franz (1756–1801) Patron. Youngest son of Empress Maria Theresa. Elector of Cologne (1784-94), until Napoleon invaded the Rhineland.

MOLLO, Tranquillo Publisher. Partner in Artaria (1793-8). Mollo sold his own firm to relations in 1832. (1799–1802)

MOSCHELES, Ignaz (1794–1870) Pianist & composer admired by Beethoven.Studied with Salieri in Vienna. Settled in England in 1826. Died at Leipzig. (1808–1827)

MOZART, Wolfgang Amadeus (1756–1791) Composer. Beethoven may have met him when he visited Vienna for the first time in 1787. 


NEATE, Charles (1784–1877) Pianist. Helped found Philharmonic society in 1813. Visited Vienna May1815-Feb1816. Invited Beethoven to London in 1824. (1815–1827)

NEEFE, Christian Gottlob (1748–1798) Teacher. Beethoven studied piano & Organ with him. Appointed court organist at Bonn (1781). Moved to Dessau in 1794.


PASQUALATI, Freiherr Joseph Benedikt von (1777–1830) Friend. Art collector. Assisted Beethoven in legal matters. (1800–1827)


RASUMOVSKY, Graf Andreas (1752–1836) Friend & patron. Created Prince in 1815. Art collector. Russian ambassador to Vienna in 1792. In 1808 he established a string quartet consisting of Schuppanzigh, Weiss, Kraft & Sina. It lasted until his palace on the Landstrasse burnt down on 31Dec 1814. Brother in law of Prince Lobkowitz. 

RIES, Ferdinand (1784–1838) Pupil, friend. Son of Franz Ries (1755-1846) who had taught Beethoven violin at Bonn. Moved to England in 1813. Married in 1814 & returned to Bonn in 1824. Promoted publication of Beethoven’s music in England. (1800–†)

RUDOLPH, Erzherzog (1788–1831) Pupil, friend. Born at Florence. Son of Emperor Leopold II. Dedicatee of “Emperor” piano concerto & “Missa Solemnis” and other works. (1803–†)


SALIERI, Antonnio (1750–1825) Opera composer. Gave Beethoven lessons in vocal composition. Came to Vienna in 1766. Intensely anti-German; worked against Mozart & possibly Beethoven as well. Died in an asylum, claiming that he had poisoned Mozart.  

SEBALD, Amalie (1787–1846) Friend. Singer born in Berlin. Married in 1815. (1812)

SCHENK, Johann (1754–1836) Teacher (counterpoint)(1793–1805/1824)

SCHILLER, Friedrich (1759–1805) Beethoven set his “Ode to Joy” in the finale of the 9th symphony.

SCHINDLER, Anton (1795–1864) Friend, Secretary. Violist. Wrote inaccurate and unreliable biography of Beethoven. (1822–†)

SCHLESINGER, Adolf Martin (1769–1839) Publisher, based in Berlin & Paris. (1820–†)

SCHUBERT, Franz (1797–1828) Composer

SCHUPPANZIGH, Ignaz (1776–1830) Friend & violinist. Beethoven nicknamed him “Falstaff” owing to his size! Member of Razumovsky quartet.(1794–†)

SIMROCK, Nikolaus (1751–1832) Horn player and music publisher in Bonn.

STEINER, Publisher

SMART, Sir George (1776–1867) Musician. Member of philharmonic society in 1813. Met Beethoven in Vienna (1825). Promoted Beethoven in England. (1825)

SONTAG, Henriette (1806–1854) Soprano. Soloist at first performance of Symphony No.9 on May 7th 1824. (1822–†)

STREICHER, Nanette (Stein) (1769–1833) Friend. Daughter of piano maker, Johann Stein of Augsburg. Child prodigy. Married Johann Streicher in 1794 & moved to Vienna, establishing a piano firm in the Landstrasse. (1787–†)

SPHOR, Louis (1784–1859) Composer. (1812–1816)


THOMSON, George (1757–1851) Scottish folk song collector & editor. Based in Edinburgh, he commisioned many composers including Beethoven to write accompaniments to folk songs he collected. (1803–1818)

TREITSCHKE, G. F. (1776–1842) Poet. Born at Leipzig. Came to Vienna in 1800. None of their plans for operas matured, except for the revised Sonnleithner text of Fidelio for the 2nd revival on 23May 1814. (1811–1815)


WALDSTEIN, Graf von (1762–1823) Patron. Persuaded Elector of Cologne to send Beethoven to Vienna on his 2nd visit. Dedicatee of “Waldstein” sonata. –  (1788–1819)

WEBER, Carl Maria von (1786–1826) Composer

WEGELER, Franz Gerhard (1765–1848) Friend. Medical consultant born in Bonn. Married Elenore Breuning in 1802. Studied medicine in Vienna (1782–†)

WESTERHOLT, Maria von an excellent pianist and Beethoven’s pupil in Bonn. According to his friend Bernhard Romberg, Beethoven was very much in love with Maria von Westerholt, but she was soon married to Baron Von Beverforde-Werries 


ZMESKALL, Domanovacez, Nikolaus von (1759–1833) Secretary in the Hungarian Chancellery, a capable amateur ‘cellist and an ardent promoter of Beethoven’s music. He remained single and in 1816 he was awarded the title ‘Hofrat’. He owned property and vineyards in Hungary and it is most probable that through him Beethoven would have met some of the most prominent Hungarian families in Vienna, notably the Brunsviks. Zmeskall kept the numerous letters and notes written to him by Beethoven over the years, and most are now in the Nationalbibliothek, Vienna – the last of these letters was written just 1 month before Beethoven’s death. His friendship with Beethoven was long and enduring, beginning in the early 1790’s and lasting until the composer’s death in 1827. He assisted Beethoven in practical matters such as obtaining servants and with small financial loans. By the 1820’s he was bedridden but In 1824, though frail and infirm, Zmeskall was taken in a sedan chair to hear the first performance of Beethoven’s 9th Symphony.  (1792-†)

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